The so-called dynamic microphones (hereinafter referred to as dynamic microphones) and condenser microphones (hereinafter referred to as condenser microphones) refer to the types of microphone heads. The common microphones on the market are mainly divided into these two types.
So what is the difference between the two?
Working principle is different
The moving coil microphone uses the principle of electromagnetic induction. The wire coil is mounted on the diaphragm and placed between the magnetic field of the magnet. As the sound pressure changes, it continuously moves in the magnetic field to generate an induced current, thereby transforming the sound signal into telecommunications. No. Its transduction principle is very similar to that of a speaker.
Condenser microphones use the principle of charging and discharging capacitors. The vibration of the sound drives one plate (ultra-thin golden film) of the capacitor. The vibration of this plate changes the distance between the two plates, which in turn changes the capacitance. When the capacitance becomes larger, the power supply charges the capacitor; when the capacitance becomes smaller, the capacitor discharges, so that current is generated in the circuit and the sound signal is converted into a current signal.
Different sound quality
Dynamic microphones are widely used in entertainment occasions such as KTV or performances. In addition to low cost and simple use, are there any other reasons? This needs to start with some other characteristics of dynamic microphones. Due to the structure, the sensitivity of the dynamic microphone is relatively low, and the frequency response is not wide enough (the frequency response range is 50Hz ~ 15kHz, and the human ear's audible frequency response range is 20Hz ~ 20kHz). Therefore, its high range extension is not good enough, and it will be slower in response to weak sounds (slow instantaneous response). Simply put, the sound is not detailed enough and the details are not rich enough.
In terms of parameters, condenser mics are obviously much better than dynamic mics. It has the characteristics of high sensitivity, wide frequency response (20Hz～20kHz), fast instantaneous response, and high sound reproduction, and can handle high boosts calmly. The sound of condenser microphones is clear and beautiful, and those singers usually choose condenser microphones, which can show their natural and beautiful voice. Therefore, condenser microphones are widely used in professional vocal singing, studio recording, film and television recording, musical instrument pickup and other occasions. So the condenser microphone can be said to be the choice for recording.
But everything has two sides. The lack of performance of the dynamic microphone makes its sound softer and hazy, and also makes the singer's singing more full and rounded, or better. Recall that when you sing in KTV, even when you turn off the EQ, your voice seems to have some effects added. In addition, the dynamic microphone has a good suppression effect on the ambient noise, which is why it is more suitable for noisy occasions.