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Microphone technical characteristics

Author:admin   AddTime:2021-05-14

The current microphones can be divided into dynamic, capacitive, piezoelectric, etc. from the working principle; from the output signal form can be divided into analog microphones and digital microphones. In terms of directivity, it is divided into omnidirectional, unidirectional, and bidirectional (noise canceling) microphones. Choosing the right microphone is becoming more and more difficult. There are more and more types of microphones, each with its own strengths, and the quality has become very good. Therefore, in addition to the price, the major influencing factor when purchasing is personal preference. Now we will introduce the reference elements for reasonable purchase of microphones.

Microphone

The first thing is of course a smooth response. When choosing a microphone, the user should be concerned about its frequency response characteristics. The frequency response needs to be wide enough to pick up the entire range of sounds, so that the quality of natural sound sources does not change audibly. The electrical output impedance is very important. Because it should match the input impedance of the mixer, tape recorder or amplifier. The impedance unit is Ω, usually at a frequency of 1kHz. The typical impedance of a dynamic microphone is 150Ω, 200Ω, or 300Ω. As a rule of thumb, the input impedance of the device should be at least 3 times the microphone impedance. All mixers currently on the market meet this requirement. In addition, there are high-impedance microphones and dual-impedance microphones that can switch between low and high impedance. The length of the cable connected to the high-impedance microphone should not exceed 7m, because the cable capacitance will cause high-frequency attenuation.



Among all kinds of microphones at the same price, omnidirectional microphones usually have a wide and smooth response, and are also less sensitive to wheezing, hand-held noise, and wind. If there is no too much external noise or too much reverberation, they are very suitable for most applications. For example, dynamic omnidirectional interview microphones are widely used by reporters. Overload sound pressure is mainly important for condenser microphones. Condenser microphones work in a linear state up to a certain sound pressure level (SPL), and the frequency is usually 1kHz. If the sound pressure exceeds this value, the output signal will deteriorate due to harmonic distortion.

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