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Overview of condenser microphones and dynamic microphones

Author:admin   AddTime:2021-04-19

The diaphragms of condenser microphones are mostly polyperfluoroethylene propylene, which has good humidity performance, produces more surface charges, and is less affected by humidity. Because this kind of microphone is also a capacitive structure, the signal internal resistance is very large, in order to draw out and amplify the voltage signal generated by the sound, the output terminal must also use a field effect transistor.

Condenser microphone:

1. The principle of directly converting sound into electrical energy signal:
Condenser microphones use the principle of capacitor charging and discharging between conductors. Ultra-thin metal or gold-plated plastic film is used as a vibrating film to induce sound pressure, which changes the static voltage between conductors and directly converts them into electrical energy signals, which are practically coupled through electronic circuits. The output impedance and sensitivity are designed.

2. It can show the characteristics of "reproduction of the original sound":
The sound experts take the pursuit of "original sound reproduction" as the higher level of sound! From the analysis of the basic design principles of microphones, it is not difficult to find that condenser microphones not only rely on sophisticated mechanism manufacturing technology, but also combine complex electronic circuits to directly convert sound into electrical energy signals. They have inherently superior characteristics, so they become a pursuit. The better choice for those who "reproduce the original sound".

3. Has an extremely wide frequency response:
The diaphragm is the main component of the microphone that senses sound and converts it into electrical energy signals. The material of the diaphragm and the design of the mechanism determine the characteristics of the microphone's sound quality. Because the diaphragm of a condenser microphone can be made of extremely thin and light materials, and the induced sound pressure is directly converted into an audio signal, the frequency response of the bass can be extended to ultra-low frequencies below 10 Hz, and the treble can easily reach tens of KHz. Ultrasound, showing very wide frequency response characteristics!

4. Features of ultra-high sensitivity:
Because there is no voice coil load on the diaphragm, an extremely thin and light design can be adopted, so not only the frequency response is extremely superior, but also it has excellent sensitivity, can sense extremely weak sound waves, and output the clearest, finest, precise and accurate original sound!

5. Fast transient response characteristics:

In addition to the characteristics of the diaphragm that determine the frequency response and sensitivity of the microphone, the ability to respond to sound waves, the so-called "transient response" characteristics, is one of the most important factors affecting the timbre of the microphone. The speed of the microphone's transient response characteristics is determined by the weight of the entire diaphragm. The lighter the diaphragm, the faster the response speed. The extremely thin diaphragm of the condenser capsule has extremely fast transient response characteristics, which can show clear, bright and powerful sound and precise and accurate audio and video. In particular, there is no sound staining and "box sound" in the middle and low frequencies, and the high pitch is delicate and crisp, which is the most significant timbre characteristic of the capacitive type. It can be clearly seen from the following figure that the transient response characteristics of the condenser capsule are much better than those of the moving coil.




6. Features of ultra-low touch noise:
When using a handheld microphone, the touch noise caused by contact with the palm of the hand makes the original sound mixed with additional noise, which has a huge impact on the sound quality, especially for wireless microphones with pre-amplifier circuits, so touch noise becomes a judge of the quality of the microphone. Important project. From the perspective of physical phenomena, the goose feathers fall to the floor like the copper plate, and the goose feathers can hardly hear the falling sound, while the copper plate is very loud, indicating that the lighter material has less impact than the heavier. In the same way, the diaphragm of a condenser microphone is relatively light, and inherently has the superior characteristics of "ultra-low touch noise".

7. It has the characteristics of drop resistance and impact resistance:
Using the microphone will inevitably cause malfunctions or abnormalities due to accidental drop and collision. Since the condenser capsule is composed of lighter plastic parts and a strong light metal shell, the impact force of falling to the ground is small, and the failure rate of damage is low

8. It has the special advantages of small size and light weight:
Condenser microphone adopts ultra-thin diaphragm, which has the characteristics of small size, light weight, high sensitivity and superior frequency response, so it can be designed as an ultra-small microphone (commonly known as little bee and little ant) for a wide range of applications

9. It is most suitable for mounting on a wireless microphone!
Condenser microphones have the above-mentioned excellent characteristics and have become the favorite of sound engineering experts and singers. Wireless microphones have become a trend in the world today to sing on stage or karaoke at home. Wireless microphones can provide capacitive sound by themselves. It has all the advantages of condenser microphones, and has become the best microphone that professional audio experts dream of in the digital audio era.

Dynamic microphone:
There were multiple technologies used to make microphones, and the result of elimination is that now the most common ones are dynamic and condenser microphones.
Generally speaking, the dynamic microphones we call should be called "moving-coil" dynamic microphones in a strict sense, because the sound signal of this kind of microphone is mainly generated by a wire coil that is closely connected to the diaphragm. It is done by moving continuously in the magnetic field according to the change of sound pressure. Due to the relatively large volume of the moving part, the dynamic microphone is slightly inferior to the condenser microphone in terms of response frequency range (mainly high frequency part), sensitivity and transient response capability. The dynamic microphone has a voice coil, the voice coil is fixed on the diaphragm, and a strong permanent magnet is arranged near the voice coil. This structure is equivalent to the structure of a speaker, and the diaphragm is equivalent to a paper cone. When the microphone is working, sound waves act on the diaphragm to cause the diaphragm to produce mechanical vibration. This vibration drives the voice coil to vibrate in a magnetic field. The excitation electricity and the voice coil output audio electrical signals, which convert sound into electrical signals. The main fault of dynamic microphones is disconnection. One is the disconnection at the plug of the microphone, the other is the disconnection of the microphone lead itself, and the third is the disconnection at the voice coil. The disconnection fault can be found through the ohm file of the multimeter. The solution to the disconnection failure is to re-solder the disconnection. When the disconnection is at the voice coil connection, soldering is more difficult and sometimes even impossible to repair. The output impedance of a dynamic microphone is generally 600 ohms. When a new microphone needs to be replaced, a microphone with the same impedance should be selected.

Moving-coil microphone: A microphone that generates electrical signals from a conductor moving in a magnetic field. It is the diaphragm that drives the coil to vibrate, so that the coil in the magnetic field induces a voltage. Features: firm structure, stable performance, durable, low price; good frequency characteristics, flat amplitude-frequency characteristic curve in the frequency range of 50-15000Hz; good directivity; no DC working voltage, easy to use, low noise.

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