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Introduction to the use of condenser microphones

Author:admin   AddTime:2021-04-13

This article is mainly about the introduction of condenser microphones, and focuses on the use of condenser microphones in detail.

Condenser microphone
Condenser microphones use changes in the size of capacitors to convert sound signals into electrical signals. This kind of microphone is the most common, such as the built-in microphone of a common recorder. Because it is cheap, compact, and the effect is not bad. Sometimes called Mitou.

Structure principle
Condenser microphones have two metal plates, one of which is coated with an electret film (mostly polyperfluoroethylene propylene) and grounded, and the other plate is connected to the gate of the field effect transistor, the gate and the source A diode is connected between the poles, as shown in Figure 2-4. When the electret diaphragm itself is charged, the amount of surface charge is Q, and the capacitance between the plates is C, then the ground voltage U=Q/C is generated on the pole head, when it is vibrated or rubbed by airflow , Due to vibration changes the distance between the two plates, that is, the capacitance C changes, but the power Q does not change, it will cause a voltage change. The magnitude of the voltage change reflects the strength of the external sound pressure, and the frequency of this voltage change reflects The frequency of the outside sound, this is the working principle of electret microphone.

Can convert sound directly into electrical energy signal
Condenser microphones use the principle of capacitor charging and discharging between conductors. Ultra-thin metal or gold-plated plastic film is used as a vibrating film to induce sound pressure, which changes the static voltage between conductors and directly converts them into electrical energy signals, which are practically coupled through electronic circuits. The output impedance and sensitivity are designed.
Can show the characteristics of original sound reproduction
The audio experts take the pursuit of "reproduction of the original sound" as the highest level of audio! From the analysis of the basic design principles of microphones, it is not difficult to find that condenser microphones not only rely on sophisticated mechanism manufacturing technology, but also combine complex electronic circuits to directly convert sound into electrical energy signals. They have inherently superior characteristics, so they become a pursuit. The best choice for those who "reproduce the original sound".

Has an extremely wide frequency response
The diaphragm is the main component of the microphone that senses sound and converts it into electrical energy signals. The material of the diaphragm and the design of the mechanism determine the characteristics of the microphone's sound quality. Because the diaphragm of a condenser microphone can be made of extremely thin and light materials, and the induced sound pressure is directly converted into an audio signal, the frequency response of the bass can be extended to ultra-low frequencies below 10 Hz, and the treble can easily reach tens of KHz. Ultrasound, showing very wide frequency response characteristics!

With ultra-high sensitivity
Because there is no voice coil load on the diaphragm, an extremely thin and light design can be used, so not only the frequency response is extremely superior, but also has excellent sensitivity, can sense extremely weak sound waves, and output the clearest, finest and accurate original sound!

Fast transient response characteristics
In addition to the characteristics of the diaphragm that determine the frequency response and sensitivity of the microphone, the ability to respond to sound waves, the so-called "transient response" characteristics, is one of the most important factors affecting the timbre of the microphone. The speed of the microphone's transient response characteristics is determined by the weight of the entire diaphragm. The lighter the diaphragm, the faster the response speed. The extremely thin diaphragm of the condenser capsule has extremely fast transient response characteristics, which can show clear, bright and powerful sound and precise audio and video. In particular, there is no sound staining and "box sound" in the middle and low frequencies, and the high pitch is delicate and crisp, which is the most significant timbre characteristic of the capacitive type. It can be clearly seen from the following figure that the transient response characteristics of the condenser capsule are much better than those of the moving coil.

Features ultra-low touch noise
When using a handheld microphone, the touch noise caused by contact with the palm of the hand makes the original sound mixed with additional noise, which has a huge impact on the sound quality, especially for wireless microphones with pre-amplifier circuits, so touch noise becomes a judge of the quality of the microphone. Important project. From the perspective of physical phenomena, the goose feathers fall to the floor like the copper plate, and the goose feathers can hardly hear the falling sound, while the copper plate is very loud, indicating that the lighter material has less impact than the heavier. In the same way, the diaphragm of a condenser microphone is relatively light, and inherently has the excellent characteristics of "ultra-low touch noise".

Has the characteristics of drop resistance and impact resistance
Using the microphone will inevitably cause malfunctions or abnormalities due to accidental drop and collision. Since the condenser capsule is composed of lighter plastic parts and a strong light metal shell, the impact force of falling to the ground is small, and the failure rate of damage is low
Small size and light weight

Condenser microphone adopts ultra-thin diaphragm, which has the characteristics of small size, light weight, high sensitivity and superior frequency response, so it can be designed as an ultra-small microphone (commonly known as little bee and little ant) for a wide range of applications

Most suitable for mounting on wireless microphones
Condenser microphones have the above-mentioned excellent characteristics and have become the favorite of sound engineering experts and singers. Wireless microphones have become a trend in the world today to sing on stage or karaoke at home. Wireless microphones can provide capacitive sound by themselves. It has all the advantages of condenser microphones, and has become the best microphone that professional audio experts dream of in the digital audio era.

The structure is complicated, the cost is expensive, the sound film is fragile, and the sound film is afraid of the tide.
Introduction to the use of condenser microphones
• Stereo X/Y condenser microphone
• Broadcast sound quality
• Adjust sound attenuation (-10dB, 0dB)
• Two-step high-pass filter (flat/80Hz)
• Integrated anti-vibration bracket
• Rugged ABS structure
• 3.5mm mini jack output
• 2 * 1.5V AAA batteries
• Cold shoe mount with 1/4" thread
• Designed for use in digital SLR cameras, camcorders and camcorders

Introduction to the use of condenser microphones
The following describes the usage indicators of condenser microphones;
Power Indicator
Gain switch
(According to the recording environment and distance, choose -10db, the recording sound will be reduced by 10db, normal recording)
Low cut switch (eliminate 80Hz frequency)
Shock mount
1/4 screw hole
Heart-shaped pointing
The BY-V02 sound characteristic is cardioid, which is super-indicative and super-cardioid to pick up the sound, which can provide real and natural sound quality and effectively avoid the sound source behind.
The cardioid pointing means that when you deviate from the front of the microphone, the signal will decay very quickly, so the direction of the picked up sound is stronger, so as to suppress the acoustic feedback, the smaller the pointing angle, the better. Introduction to the use of condenser microphones
How to use condenser microphones effectively
The pursuit of a good condenser microphone is to reproduce the original sound. A good condenser microphone can be understood from the following data:
①Broad frequency response. The frequency response of BY-PVM1000L is 30Hz-20KHz, and users can compare the data of microphones on the market.
②Ultra-high sensitivity: the higher the sensitivity, the microphone can sense weaker sound waves, and output clearer, delicate and accurate original sound. The sensitivity of BY-PVM1000L is: -33db±3db
③High signal-to-noise ratio: The higher the signal-to-noise ratio, the less recording impurities. The signal-to-noise ratio of BY-PVM1000L is 80db, which is a very high value.

1. Condenser microphones have high balance, fidelity and rapidity. They have a natural sense of hearing and rich details. The low frequency of electret microphones is thin, but the speed is high, so it appears dry and high pitched. Too high; the speed of the dynamic microphone is not very high, the details are lacking, the sound is rich, and the middle and low frequencies are prominent, so the sound characteristics of the different microphones are very different.
2. During singing, we add a certain reverberation effect. The sound that adds the reverberation effect is commonly called wet sound, while the original sound from the microphone is called dry sound. When the reverberation operation is turned on, the sound The singing voice is appropriately improved, so our voice is even sweeter.
3. When singing, it should be adjusted to be slightly higher than the background music to make the human voice sound. When the background music is too small, the human voice will sound abrupt, and when it is too loud, the human voice will be submerged.
4. It is not suitable to put the microphone near the mouth. When using the microphone, we should place the microphone near the front edge of the chin. A proper distance can make our voice more natural, so as to obtain a better vocal frequency response and sound pressure. And should keep a distance of 5-10 cm.

That's it for the introduction of condenser microphones. If you have any deficiencies, please correct me.

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