Condenser microphones use changes in the size of capacitors to convert sound signals into electrical signals. This kind of microphone is the most common, such as the built-in microphone of a common recorder. Because it is cheap, compact, and the effect is not bad. Sometimes called Mitou.
A dynamic microphone is a device that converts sound into electrical signals. The moving coil microphone is made using electromagnetic induction. When the sound wave vibrates the diaphragm, the coil (called the voice coil) connected to the diaphragm vibrates together, and the voice coil vibrates in the magnetic field, which generates an induced current. (Electrical signal), the magnitude and direction of the induced current change. The amplitude and frequency of the change are determined by the sound wave. This signal current is amplified by the loudspeaker and transmitted to the speaker, and the amplified sound is emitted from the speaker.
Their differences are as follows:
1. The difference in working principle: The moving coil microphone uses the principle of electromagnetic induction. The wire coil is mounted on the diaphragm, and then placed between the magnetic field of the magnet. As the sound pressure changes, it continuously moves in the magnetic field to generate an induced current. Thereby turning the sound signal into an electrical signal. The condenser microphone is the principle of charging and discharging capacitors.
Second, the difference in structure: The dynamic microphone is mainly composed of a coil, a diaphragm and a shell, and the structure is very firm and the stability is also extremely high. In terms of the structure of the condenser microphone, the structure of the capacitor inside the sound head is complicated, and there are components such as a plate (ultra-thin metal film) and an amplifier inside.
3. The difference in sound quality: Due to the structure of the dynamic microphone, the sensitivity of the dynamic microphone is relatively low, and the frequency response is not wide enough. Therefore, its high-range extension is not good enough, and it will be slower in response to weak sounds (slow instantaneous response). Simply put, the sound is not detailed enough and the details are not rich enough. In contrast, the sound of condenser microphones is clear and bright.
Fourth, the price difference: because of its simple structure, dynamic microphones are cheaper than condenser microphones.
V. Differences in applications: Condenser microphones are widely used in professional vocal singing, studio recording, film and television recording, musical instrument pickup and other occasions. The dynamic microphone is widely used in entertainment occasions such as KTV or performances.