The dynamic microphone is made using electromagnetic induction. When the sound wave vibrates the diaphragm, the coil (called the voice coil) connected to the diaphragm vibrates together, and the voice coil vibrates in the magnetic field, which generates an induced current. (Electrical signal), the magnitude and direction of the induced current change, and the amplitude and frequency of the change are determined by the sound wave. This signal current is amplified by the loudspeaker and transmitted to the speaker, and the amplified sound is emitted from the speaker.
Advantages: The dynamic microphone structure is relatively simple, so it is economical and durable. They can withstand extremely high sound pressure and are almost unaffected by their temperature or humidity.
Applicable to: Generally used in stage performances, KTV, wedding hosting, conference teaching, brass instruments, near-field drums, etc.
【Small-diaphragm condenser microphone】
The condenser microphone is designed based on the principle of electrostatics. The diaphragm and the back plate constitute a capacitor unit. The vibration of the diaphragm with the sound wave causes the potential difference between it and the back plate to change, thereby converting the acoustic signal into an electrical signal. Condenser microphones generally have built-in amplifiers because the output of the condenser unit is very weak. Condenser microphones require an external 48 V phantom power supply or battery. The significance of choosing a small-diaphragm condenser microphone is that those small diaphragms with a diameter of about 12 mm are very sensitive to the vibration of sound waves.
Advantages: durable and not easy to be interfered by low frequency and environmental noise, bright high frequency, fast response
Applicable to: recording studio recording, high-frequency instrument recording, such as cymbals, violin, etc.
【Large Diaphragm Condenser Microphone】
In the past, microphone manufacturers could not make the diaphragm as exquisite as it is now. All condenser microphones at that time should be called "large-diaphragm condenser microphones." Of course, there is no dividing line to define what is a "large diaphragm" and what is a "small diaphragm". As mentioned earlier, a size of about 12 mm can be called a "small diaphragm", and a size of 24 mm or more can be counted as a "large diaphragm". When buying a microphone, we will find that some microphones that look very large have a surprisingly small diaphragm inside, so the size of the diaphragm is a microphone parameter that requires our special attention.
Advantages: It can give you the kind of sound that the recording studio particularly admires-the sound is thick and warm, and it feels very comfortable no matter what sound is recorded.
Applicable to: professional recording in recording studio, quiet live environment
The design and manufacture of this type of microphone can be traced back to the early days of condenser microphones. At that time, because transistors had not yet been widely used in large-scale applications, the built-in amplifiers of condenser microphones were all used tubes. Although some tube microphones used to be equipped with small diaphragms, most of the tube microphones we see now have large diaphragms.
Advantages: The tube amplifier is easy to produce a very pleasant and comfortable pickup effect, that is, "warm sound". The current tube microphones have become very popular, and the prices remain high.
Suitable for: professional recording in studio
【Aluminum Ribbon Microphone】
It is also a kind of dynamic microphone. It is mainly through the vibration of the metal sheet itself according to the change of sound pressure to drive the change of the current in the magnetic field, thereby finally generating the sound signal. Because the area of the metal sheet is smaller than that of the diaphragm and coil, this ribbon microphone has a higher response to high frequencies than a dynamic microphone, but it still cannot be compared to a condenser microphone.
Advantages: good frequency response characteristics, high sensitivity, low distortion, large signal-to-noise ratio, small size and sensitivity
Suitable for: vocals, digital recording, especially percussion instruments and brass
The electret microphone is a special condenser microphone. We already know that the principle of a condenser microphone is that the amount of polarized charge on the capacitor changes, thereby generating electrical signals at both ends of the capacitor to achieve acoustic-electrical signal conversion. The electret material is a material that can retain these charges for a long time after adding charges. Using this principle, the electret material on the diaphragm or the backplane provides the constant voltage required by the capacitor unit, which can save the power supply of the microphone. However, the work of the microphone built-in amplifier still requires battery or phantom power. It should be noted that battery-powered electret microphones are less sensitive than phantom-powered ones, and have a weaker ability to handle larger sound pressures.
Advantages: small size, simple structure, good electroacoustic performance, low price
Applicable to: communication equipment, household appliances and other electronic products
Features of dynamic microphones
The sensitivity is not high and the details are insufficient, but it is not easy to pick up environmental noise. It is very suitable for use on the stage, and it is not easy to generate feedback and howling. Another benefit of insensitivity is that the sound pressure level/volume is large, and it can withstand very loud sounds without bursting, such as picking up the sound of a drum kit. There are also many electro-acoustic instruments, such as electric guitars and bass, which are not full-range instruments in themselves. They are very suitable for the use of dynamic microphones to pick up the sound, and the crosstalk of other instruments is avoided. Finally, a great advantage of dynamic microphones is that they are resistant to handling. It doesn’t matter if you accidentally drop them on the ground. Pick them up and continue singing.
Features of condenser microphones
High sensitivity, rich details, flat and wide frequency response curve, suitable for recording in the studio. However, it is easy to pick up environmental noise in the daily environment, such as the bed vibration next door... In addition to the requirements for the sound environment, condenser microphones are also more delicate, and they are better to be put away when not in use. Pack a desiccant, because moisture will affect the life of the diaphragm. Generally, high-end recording studios will buy a special drying box to store the microphones.
Features of crawler microphones
It is difficult to serve and is not recommended for beginners. Its sound is between the moving coil and the capacitor. The sensitivity is not as good as the capacitor, but better than the moving coil; the frequency response is worse than the moving coil, but not as broad as the capacitor. Although it is not high enough, it is eaten all over the world with one trick. With its warm tone and fast transients, it has become the favorite of sound engineers. It is very suitable for the reception of JAZZ and blues music. With the improvement of technology, some new tracked microphones can be added with 48V phantom power supply, which improves the high frequency response and wider frequency response, and there is no need to worry about turning on the phantom power supply by mistake to burn the microphone~
What are "transistors" and "tubes"?
Many people confuse tube microphones with condenser microphones. Condenser microphones are divided into transistors and tubes. Transistor amplifiers are used in transistor microphones, and tube amplifiers are used in tube microphones. Due to the characteristics of the tube itself, the tube microphone must be equipped with a power supply (it will be included when you buy the microphone). When using it, you must take a few minutes to warm up to a better state. You must also pay attention to maintenance because the tube has a lifespan. Although it is so troublesome, the sound of the tube is warmer than that of the transistor. Although many singers and sound engineers love it, some people feel that it is not clean enough. It varies from person to person, and the sound is very subjective.