In recent years, with the improvement of the level of material civilization, the audience has higher requirements for auditory experience. Whether watching theatrical performances or enjoying music programs, they all hope to get better artistic enjoyment. The role of stage acoustics in performances has become more prominent, and people have gradually paid attention and paid attention to it. How to optimize the stage acoustics is a problem that every literary and artistic group must consider. This article starts with three key elements of "the tuning quality of the stage tuner, the combination of sound equipment, and the integration of the sound and the stage environment", and focuses on the three key elements. How to optimize stage sound effects.
1. To grasp the overall situation of the stage, the tuner should have professional tuning quality
*Voice actor Zhang Guilan said it well: "The actor's language performance art and the sound engineer's debugging art are the relationship between the scale and the mound." "The sound actually debugged is not the actor's original sound, but the sound engineer uses sound equipment to transform it. "Passed sound", it can be seen that the tuning quality of a tuner directly affects the sound effect of the stage, which in turn affects the quality of the entire stage performance. For this reason, the stage tuner should have professional tuning qualities.
(1) Possess good sound debugging technology. As a tuner, you must have a deep analysis and understanding of the music works you are debugging, and combine electro-acoustic technology with sound technology. For example, use an equalizer to improve the timbre of the original sound; use a reverb and delay to increase intimacy, distance and space; you can also use "doubling" technology to increase the "group sense" of a certain instrument; especially now With the use of digital audio technology, the tuner can modify the sound waves to create the timbre of human voices and musical instruments. According to the vocal characteristics of different actors, they can highlight their vocal advantages and make up for their vocal weaknesses, such as reverberation when a male vocal sings solo. The intensity should be adjusted lower, and the reverberation intensity of the female singer's solo singing should be adjusted higher, which will make the singing effect better. Only when the tuner has mastered the requirements of different types of stage performance sound, can he grasp the overall stage of the stage and call up the best stage sound effects.
(2) Possess good acoustic art accomplishment. The sound art of the tuner directly affects the sound adjustment effect of the stage. The tuner must be familiar with different actors, different musical instruments, and the differences in the vibration frequency and harmonics of sound-producing materials, and be familiar with the narrow frequency bandwidth of various musical instruments and human voices to identify the characteristics and defects of the sound. If a singer sings on the stage with MIDI accompaniment, the tuner will handle his accompaniment. In the same way, the music that goes with the pleasing dance is handled by the tuner. At this time, the stage requires the tuner to apply the contrast of the strength and weakness of the music to the performance on the stage to make it echo, in order to achieve a perfect performance.
(3) Possess good sound debugging psychological quality. Facts have proved that the tuner’s psychological quality is closely related to the stage sound effects. The instability of psychological emotions will cause the tuner’s hearing sensitivity and resolution to decline, and even fail to correctly judge various timbres, which will bring the entire stage effect. Negative impact. To this end, the tuner must master the necessary psychological knowledge, cultivate strong psychological adaptability, psychological endurance and psychological control abilities, and make good use of art psychology, creative psychology, audience psychology, etc. on this basis Knowledge, combining the seriousness and dignity of music with the humorous nature of music, can improve the overall taste and level of the stage audio work.
2. Select audio equipment to ensure the professional level of audio equipment combination
With the development of the times, modern audiences have higher requirements on the stage, not only to satisfy the visual pleasure, but also to complete the auditory aesthetic process. Therefore, in order to fully optimize the stage sound effects, one of the key factors is to carefully select the sound equipment.
The stage sound system is composed of signal source equipment, signal processing equipment, power amplifiers, speakers and other equipment connected and combined, through the tuning of the tuner, in order to achieve a good stage sound effect.
(1) Ensure that the configuration of audio equipment is professional. Audio equipment is an important basis for ensuring stage sound effects, and it is directly related to the success and failure of stage art presentation. The frequency range of the microphone power amplifier and speakers is very important, and the mixer is a particularly important device in the audio equipment, and it is the top priority of the audio equipment. The use of a good sound system can beautify the stage performance of the actors, such as promoting the development of the stage performance plot and rendering the entire stage atmosphere. Therefore, it is necessary to use advanced electro-acoustic devices and equipment as stage sound reinforcement to perfectly achieve the clarity of language and the fullness of musical works, and create a satisfactory stage effect.
(2) Make sure that the microphone selection and microphone pickup are in place. In terms of microphone selection, different microphones are used according to different performers: the host usually uses a microphone equipped with a cover when speaking, so as to avoid the "b" and "p" words that are caused by the vibration of the air when speaking. The sound of "peng" can also be avoided in windy outdoor venues. Microphone pickup is divided into vocal pickup and instrumental pickup. In terms of human voice pickup, based on the host’s intonation is mostly medium and low intonation, the more bass affects the clarity of speech, and the more treble is harsh, so the frequency band close to the low frequency 150HZ can be attenuated by 6-10dh, and the mid-frequency band 250HZ- 2KHZ is increased by 3-6db, and the high frequency is attenuated by 3-6db above 5KHZ, so that the clarity of the sound and the brightness of the sound quality can be improved. In terms of instrumental pickup, the correct adjustment can be made according to whether the instrument is an electro-acoustic instrument: the electro-acoustic instrument itself has its own pickup, so the tuner only needs to connect the signal line to the mixer, but you need to pay attention to the tuning. The input part of the sound console is generally divided into two parts: low-impedance and high-impedance input. The pickup of non-electro-acoustic instruments requires the tuner to fully understand the main frequency response range of the instrument's sound, so as to adjust the sound effect of the sound.
(3) Ensure the correct placement and use of speakers and power amplifiers. The placement of the speakers has a direct effect on the audience's hearing, so first of all, the placement of the speakers should be paid attention to. When the audience is watching the program, the attention direction of the line of sight is the source of the sound. The front position on both sides of the stage or the two sides of the proscenium centered on the stage can make the angle of the speakers cover the entire auditorium. Speakers can be hoisted when performing off-site performances. Special active speakers are the best choice. This not only avoids low-frequency whistling, but also because the wall has a reflection effect on low-frequency, it will increase the loudness of sound reinforcement and enable the audience to receive enough Loudness.
3. Combine the scene atmosphere to create an acoustic effect that blends with the stage environment
The stage atmosphere is a comprehensive art. Without high-quality stage sound, there will be no successful display of the stage atmosphere. The existence of stage sound is also a product of the advancement and development of stage atmosphere. At this stage, the two are mutually causal and interdependent. Therefore, as an excellent tuner, you must focus on combining the on-site atmosphere to create an acoustic effect that blends with the stage environment.
(1) Fully prepare for sound debugging of different stage venues. The quality of the stage sound effects is directly affected by the venue conditions. The indoor and outdoor venue conditions are different, the indoor venues are different in size and shape, and the sound reflects different effect requirements. Therefore, measurements should be taken in advance, and acoustic instruments should be used to measure the acoustic characteristics of the venue. The measurement content includes: sound field unevenness, * sound pressure pole, sound transmission gain, sound clarity, reverberation period, intelligibility, etc. On this basis, the tuner should flexibly respond to different stage scenes and make sound sound adjustments. Generally speaking, the volume of outdoor performances should be relatively louder, and the volume of indoor theater performances should be relatively small. For different indoor theaters, different adjustments must be made to the actual conditions of different performance locations until the most satisfactory sound effects are obtained.
(2) Fully guarantee the correct operation of on-site audio equipment on stage. With good design, good sound, and how to operate it during the performance. On the stage, the overall design of the sound effects and the overall intention of the performance are harmonious. The sound effects must be incorporated into the director’s idea, and done in accordance with the director’s specific sound regulations. The degree of participation of each type of sound, the volume, the height, and the time of entry must be rehearsed, accurate and just right. Let the audience integrate with the whole performance through the tone, rhythm and tempo, and enjoy the charm of sound effect art in a specific stage environment, so that it can play its due role in the performance. At the same time, it is necessary to seize the opportunity to deal with the changes in the effect and choose the * method to play the effect on the stage with the changes in the plot of the stage program, changes in lines, changes in actions, changes in space, changes in time, changes in emotions, etc.
(3) Pay attention to the close coordination between sound debugging and lighting changes. Stage performances are diverse, and the same sound effects are combined with different lighting changes in different performance forms, which will present different feelings to the audience. In addition, the expression of the emotional changes of the characters also requires the cooperation of stage lighting. Only the correct application of sound equipment and the coordination of lighting colors can make stage performances achieve pleasing effects. In order to ensure the harmony and completeness of stage art, during the performance of lighting and sound, the tuner and lighting engineer are required to cooperate closely with the progress of the performance. Especially for some key sound effects, the effective cooperation of stage lighting is required to create Touching "stereoscopic stereo image", such as in Andersen's fairy tale musical "The Little Match Girl", when the protagonist girl shrinks in a dark corner, the sound of wind and snow appears to the audience, which makes the audience feel like a cold wind In the snowy, hungry and cold scene, as the little girl struck one match after another, the sound effect of the wind and snow gradually faded and disappeared. The warmth of the match drove away the darkness and dispelled the cold. Due to the integration of sound and lighting, the stage atmosphere is rendered, and the audience is unknowingly attracted to the plot. Therefore, in actual application of stage sound and lighting, it is necessary to closely cooperate with the progress of the performance and achieve mutual coordination and effective cooperation to meet the creative requirements of stage art.
In summary, it is stated that optimizing the stage sound effects should grasp the three key elements of "the tuning quality of the stage tuner, the combination of sound equipment, and the integration of sound and the stage environment".