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The sound principle of professional microphones

Author:admin   AddTime:2021-03-11

As a device separated from the microphone of the telephone, the development of the microphone (Microphone) is about 100 years, and there are not many technological revolutions in the "sound/electric conversion" in the past century. The following editor organizes the types of microphones and the sound principle for you

How ribbon microphones occur-Ribbon Microphone
It and condenser microphones are both technologies that emerged in the 1930s. European people prefer condenser microphones and American people prefer ribbon microphones. It has formed an industry habit to this day and can be described as the "national microphone" of the United States. The sound characteristics are fat and warm (excellent low frequency), smooth connection, slow transient state, and low high frequency. In short, it is "comfortable and non-stimulating". It is used for light jazz and slow songs, and sometimes used to replace dynamic microphones. Record instruments with loud sound pressure (such as a guitar case) or high frequencies that are too bright (such as a trumpet).
Although it was gradually replaced by condenser microphones in the 1980s and 1990s, there have been major advances in aluminum ribbon technology since 2000, and condenser microphones have stagnated. By 2015, the new ribbon microphones had reached the sensitivity and frequency response of condenser microphones, while still maintaining the previous timbre characteristics, and their prices had dropped significantly, making them a new choice for musicians.

Principle of Dynamic Microphone-Dynamic Microphone
Moving coil is an important technology of sound/electric conversion in the 20th century. Now most headphones and speakers (bass unit) also use this method. It is very similar to ribbon microphones: low sensitivity, slow transients, and insufficient high-frequency pickup. , However, the diaphragm is more durable than aluminum tape. It is mainly used for KTV and live performances (to avoid "howling"). In the recording studio, it is mainly responsible for "physical work", especially the recording of drums.

Dynamic microphones are currently the cheapest type of professional microphones. The "industry standards" include Shure SM58 vocal dynamic microphones and SM57 instrumental microphones (sound tough), both of which are about 100 US dollars. If you add 50 US dollars, you can basically buy them. To the dynamic microphone with the highest sensitivity and widest frequency response, such as Shure Beta 58 or JZ HH1.



Principle of Condenser Microphone-Condenser Microphone
If it is not a special recording, the condenser microphone is the most used type of recording in the recording studio. It is more sensitive than dynamic coils and ribbons, with wider high frequency extension and richer details. The recording studio usually needs to be equipped with a variety of condenser microphones. Meet different recording needs. The current "industry standard" in the recording industry is Neumann's U87. Almost every recording studio needs to be equipped with one.

The principle of tube condenser microphone-Tube/ValveCondenser Microphon
"Transistor" is a technology that was only popularized in the civilian field in the 1950s (the Second World War is over...). Before that, the mainstream designs of "computer" and condenser microphones were all electronic tubes, and "phantom power supply" was not popular at that time, so it must With the original independent power supply. After the audio signal is amplified by the electronic tube, the sound will be slightly warm and slow, and there will be a slight compression at high volume. Don't worry about "overdrive" too much. Although the operation is slightly troublesome, it is still loved by American musicians today (a little ribbon microphone the taste of).
There are a few things to pay attention to when using tube microphones. One is that you don’t need to turn on the sound card or the 48V phantom power supply on the microphone amplifier; the other is that you don’t need to match the “tube microphone amplifier”, otherwise the sound will be weak and slightly distorted after the tube has been used twice; The 7-pin microphone cable given by the original factory is very rare and not cheap.

The principle of electret microphone generation-ElectretMicrophone
It is a type of condenser microphone. The sounding principle is the same as that of condenser microphones, but the diaphragm has been polarized and there is no need to polarize the diaphragm. Therefore, the power supply requirement is much lower than that of traditional condenser microphones. Electret microphones usually use a small diaphragm design (for power supply considerations), so the low-frequency pickup ability is average. Although the details are slightly lower than that of condenser microphones, it is still higher than dynamic and ribbon microphones. The most important thing is not to be as troublesome as condenser microphones. Requires 48V power supply, so it has become the main design method for USB microphones and iOS microphones.

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