Nowadays, there are an endless stream of microphone products on the market, and the functions are even more diverse. This makes many Xiaobai who want to get a microphone a headache, so how to choose a microphone that suits them? Let me first take a little knowledge of the microphone!
Microphone is a transliteration of the English word Microphone of microphone, and it can also be abbreviated as Mic. It also has a very grounded scientific name called "microphone", which very directly points out the essence of the microphone: a device that picks up and transmits sound.
1. Classification of microphones
There are 3 common microphones, which can be divided into dynamic microphones, condenser microphones and ribbon microphones according to their working principles.
Working principle: It is made by the principle of electromagnetic induction. It is the electrical signal generated by the diaphragm in the microphone head that drives the coil to vibrate and then cuts the magnetic lines of induction.
Dynamic microphone capsule, larger volume
Advantages: solid structure, stable performance, durable and low price
Disadvantages: low sensitivity, frequency response is not wide enough
The frequency response range of dynamic microphones is 50Hz～15kHz, but the audible frequency response range of human ears is 20Hz～20kHz
Working principle: A very thin gold-plated film is used as a pole of the capacitor, separated by a few tenths of a millimeter, and there is another fixed electrode, so as to form a capacitor of several P farads. The film electrode vibrates with the sound wave and causes the capacitance of the capacitor to change. , Forming an electrical signal.
Condenser microphone capsule is small
Advantages: Condenser microphone has the characteristics of small size, light weight, high sensitivity and superior frequency response due to its ultra-thin diaphragm.
Disadvantages: Disadvantages are advantages. Due to its high sensitivity, it is easy to collect noise from the surrounding environment.
Compared with dynamic microphones, condenser microphones have a frequency response range of 20Hz～20kHz
Working principle: A thin aluminum sheet is used to cut the magnetic field to generate current. When the sound makes the aluminum tape vibrate, the magnetic induction line of the aluminum tape cuts to generate a weak current, which is amplified by the pre-processing amplifier circuit (usually a transformer) and converted into sound.
Ribbon microphone capsule
Advantages: The sound is characterized by fat and warm (excellent low frequency), smooth connection, in short, "comfortable and non-irritating".
Disadvantages: low sensitivity, low transient state, insufficient high frequency, relatively fragile diaphragm, high sound pressure or accidental opening of 48V may cause the diaphragm to burn.
Compared with condenser microphones, ribbon microphones have the same frequency response range, but the high frequency is insufficient
2. What is microphone directivity?
The sensitivity of the microphone to the sound from different directions will be different, which is called the directionality of the microphone.
Microphone directivity generally includes omnidirectional, cardioid, figure-8, etc.
Omnidirectional refers to the consistent performance of the microphone in picking up sound from all directions. Recording is more suitable for recording chorus.
Heart-shaped pointing to the front has the greatest sensitivity, the side is slightly smaller, and the back is the smallest. This microphone has excellent performance in a variety of sound reinforcement systems. Generally speaking, solo recordings of singers use this kind of directivity.
Figure 8: This directivity is the most sensitive on the front and back, and the least sensitive on the left and right sides. It is usually a ribbon microphone, suitable for two people to sing in duet.
3. Next, make the key points!
So how do you choose a microphone that suits you according to your actual situation? Let's analyze them one by one below.
When choosing a microphone, the user should first care about its frequency response characteristics. Frequency response means that when the microphone receives sounds of different frequencies, the output signal will be amplified or attenuated as the frequency changes. The most ideal frequency response curve is a horizontal line, which represents that the output signal can directly present the characteristics of the original sound, but this ideal situation is not easy to achieve. In the figure below, you can see that the frequency response curve of the condenser microphone is relatively flat, and the restoration is more realistic.
Taken together, the frequency response of condenser microphones is relatively good
The next step is to select the polarity pattern. Among all kinds of microphones at the same price, omnidirectional microphones usually have the broadest and smoothest response, and are also less sensitive to wheezing and hand-held noise. If there is no too much external noise or too much reverberation, the omnidirectional microphone is very suitable for most applications.
Heart-shaped pointing is recommended for personal use, which can reduce the collection of environmental noise
Under normal circumstances, the products that everyone comes into contact with the most are divided into dynamic microphones and condenser microphones. Dynamic microphones have lower sensitivity, while condenser microphones have higher sensitivity.
When choosing a microphone, if the environmental noise is relatively large, you can consider using a dynamic microphone, because the sensitivity is low, so it is not easy to pick up environmental noise. It has a simple structure, strong durability and low price.
The biggest feature of condenser microphones is high sensitivity, rich details of pickup, and flat and wide frequency response curve. As long as the noise is controlled well, not only can it exert excellent performance in the recording studio, but also in daily personal recording, karaoke, or networking. Road live broadcast can also achieve satisfactory results.
Compared with the robustness and durability of dynamic microphones, condenser microphones can look much more delicate. In addition to the requirements for the sound environment mentioned above, condenser microphones also have certain requirements for the storage environment. Therefore, it must not be placed in a damp place, because the damp environment will affect the sound quality of the condenser microphone. And it should be handled with care. When not in use, it is best to put it away and put it in the box. You can put a few packs of desiccant in the box for storage. After all, this is the guy where the anchors eat!