1 Types of microphones
The condenser microphone (CondenserMicrophone) sends sound into the internal diaphragm and vibrates to cause the diaphragm to vibrate, causing the voltage to change and then generate a signal. It has high sensitivity and is often used for high-quality recordings, such as guitar playing, complex environmental sounds, and use in recording studios. Most condenser microphones require phantom power (PhantomPower) to receive sound, which is troublesome to use.
Compared with the cheaper dynamic microphone (Dynamic Microphone) because it contains coils and magnets, it is not as light as a condenser microphone and has lower sensitivity to high frequencies, but the sound it contains is softer and suitable for recording vocals. As well as live performances, musical instruments such as percussion and speakers are also commonly used in recording studios to collect high sound pressure.
2 Directivity of the microphone
Omnidirectional has the same sensitivity for sounds from different angles. It is common in recording projects that need to record the entire environment sound; or when the sound source is moving, and it is hoped to maintain a good sound reception; the lavalier microphone that the speaker wears when giving a speech is also of this type. The disadvantage of the omnidirectional type is that it is easy to receive the noise of the surrounding environment, and it is relatively cheap in terms of price.
The common single-pointing type is Cardioid or Hypercardioid, which has the best reception effect for the sound from the front of the microphone, while the sound from other directions will be attenuated, which is common in handheld microphones. And other occasions, this type of extreme is shotgun pointing (Shotgun).
Bi-directional (Bi-directional or Figure-of-8) can accept sound from the front and back of the microphone. It can be used as a stereo recording method and other special purposes (such as MS, Blumlein recording method). The internal structure is basically similar to the omnidirectional, the main difference is on the circuit board (PCB).
Directivity is not absolutely related to recording quality. As shown in the figure above, we understand that it refers to the range of the sound. If you want to record yourself or a little more ambient sound when recording, it is recommended to use an omnidirectional product.
3 Suggested position when recording vocals
When recording vocals, it is recommended to sing towards the on-axis of the microphone. This is the most correct way to receive sound. The center point of the microphone facing the chin or upwards is to be avoided. 15 ~ 20 cm is the best distance. When singing to ㄅ, ㄆ, ㄈ, ㄊ, ㄏ or the part of the English letters B, F, P, the strong airflow generated by the mouth may cause the microphone to be overcharged and distorted, causing the pop noise (Pop Noise). You can move the microphone farther away or slightly away from the pivot point (TurnOff-Axis) to avoid interference.
4 Insulate noise
Both the sponge cover and the spray-proof wheat cover can effectively isolate the air noise just mentioned. If the recording environment is outdoors, the sponge cover can effectively isolate the sound of wind and wheat. You can use the blowout cover indoors or without the consideration of going into the lens. It can disperse the air current generated by the air or cracking sound, greatly reducing the chance of directly rushing into the microphone, and improving the recording quality. These pop or air sounds are difficult to deal with in the post-production stage, and should be avoided when recording.
5 Choose your microphone shock mount
It is very important to choose a shock mount that suits your microphone. It uses elastic vibration isolation to further reduce the influence of external vibration and also reduce the mechanical vibration sound transmitted by the vertical and horizontal directions. The sensitive microphone is very sensitive to the vibration in the space, and the shock-proof frame can effectively isolate the vibration, so that the high frequency can be more transparent, and the sound is more stable.
6 The microphone is too close
Sometimes I hope to be closer to the sounding object to reduce other noises. The fact is that not only the noise is still collected, but it also causes the proximity effect (Proximity Effect). The proximity effect is the use of the closer the sound source and the microphone to generate additional low frequency and volume. The low frequency enhancement will block the mid and high frequencies and make the speaker output turbid. If this is not the effect you want, you should try to avoid it.
7 Avoid using too many microphones at once
When one microphone can receive the effect you want, never add a second microphone, but superfluous. For example, if you want to record a group of people talking and record all the voices in it, in many cases one microphone will be better than multiple ones. In addition to the inability to balance the sound source, multiple microphones will also have phasing problems, so the number of microphones can be as small as possible, and the effect is ideal.
8 Use your ears to hear your ideal distance
When recording an instrument, you may wish to listen to it with your ears, and use your experimental spirit to try different distances and positions to hear the desired effect you want to receive. For example, where you want to pick up the sound of the guitar sound hole, you can first use your ears to listen to adjust and then use the microphone to fine-tune.
9 Remember to record the ambient sound source
When editing the audio source, you may encounter certain paragraphs or dialogues that need to be deleted. After these parts are deleted, they become completely silent and abrupt. At this time, if you have pre-recorded the indoor ambient sound, it can help you fill the gap and make the whole track sound more natural. So make a good habit of recording a 30-second ambient sound before or after the radio.