Do you know dynamic microphones and condenser microphones?
In our daily life, the frequency of use of a microphone (microphone) may not be considered high, but for some people, the microphone is particularly important. For example, network anchors and singers are inseparable from it; it is also indispensable in environments such as recording and conference venues. Maybe you have heard of microphones with condenser and moving coil before, and you also know that there are Niu X microphones such as Sennheiser MK4 and Shure SM58. So what are the differences between them? If you are asked to choose a microphone that suits you, how should you choose?
What is the difference in working principle:
The so-called dynamic microphones (hereinafter referred to as dynamic microphones) and condenser microphones (hereinafter referred to as condenser microphones) refer to the types of microphone heads. The common microphones on the market are mainly divided into these two types. So what is the difference in the working principle of the two? The moving coil microphone uses the principle of electromagnetic induction. The wire coil is mounted on the diaphragm, and then placed between the magnetic field of the magnet. As the sound pressure changes, it continuously moves in the magnetic field to generate an induced current, thereby turning the sound signal into an electrical signal. . Its energy conversion principle is very similar to that of a speaker.
Condenser microphones use the principle of charging and discharging capacitors. The vibration of the sound drives one plate (ultra-thin metal film) of the capacitor. The vibration of this plate changes the distance between the two plates, which in turn changes the capacitance. When the capacitance becomes larger, the power supply charges the capacitor; when the capacitance becomes smaller, the capacitor discharges, so that a current is generated in the circuit and the sound signal is converted into an electrical signal.
2 In terms of structure, what are the differences between the two?
What is the difference in structure:
From the structural point of view, the dynamic microphone is mainly composed of a coil, a diaphragm and a shell, with a firm structure, stable performance, relatively durable, and easy control of the cost. So like the microphones we usually use in KTV, most of them are dynamic microphones. Of course, there is another reason. The dynamic microphone is also very simple to use. It can be used when connected to the device without a DC working voltage.
But for condenser microphones, everything becomes less simple. Structurally, the structure of the capacitor inside the sound head is complicated, the electrode plate (ultra-thin metal film) is relatively fragile, the cost is expensive, and it is afraid of moisture and falling, and the maintenance cost is high. In addition, there is an amplifier in the condenser microphone, which needs power supply to work. However, due to the size of the microphone, this power supply is usually designed as an external type, and its name is "Phantom Power".
The so-called "phantom power supply" refers to the transmission of audio signal current and DC power voltage in the same audio signal line. Generally speaking, most condenser microphones require 48V phantom power, so many professional mixers also have built-in 48V phantom power. However, some professionals have reported that the use of 48V phantom power will produce current sound, which will affect the final recording effect, but I think this is limited to some professionals' nitpicking of sound quality, right? I don't know what everyone thinks about this.
Electret condenser microphone:
In addition, there is also a kind of condenser microphone that is powered by a battery, called an electret condenser microphone. It has the characteristics of small size, simple structure, good electroacoustic performance, and low cost, and is suitable for mass production. It is widely used in meeting occasions, voice communication equipment, voice recorders, cameras, mobile phones and other products. However, the sound quality of electret condenser microphones is relatively poor, so it is mostly used in occasions where the sound quality is not high.
3 What is the difference between the two in terms of sound quality?
What is the difference in sound quality:
As we said before, dynamic microphones are widely used in entertainment occasions such as KTV or performances. In addition to low cost and simple use, are there any other reasons? This needs to start with some other characteristics of dynamic microphones. Due to the structure, the sensitivity of the dynamic microphone is relatively low, and the frequency response is not wide enough (the frequency response range is 50Hz ~ 15kHz, and the human ear's audible frequency response range is 20Hz ~ 20kHz). Therefore, its high range extension is not good enough, and it will be slower in response to weak sounds (slow instantaneous response). Simply put, the sound is not detailed enough and the details are not rich enough.
The difference is really big. Do you know the dynamic microphone and the condenser microphone?
Although the sound is not delicate enough, the dynamic microphone is the best choice for live performances
However, everything has two sides. The lack of performance of the dynamic microphone makes its tone softer and hazy, and also makes the singer's singing sound more full and round, or better. Recall that when you sing in KTV, even when you turn off the EQ, your voice seems to have some effects added. In addition, the dynamic microphone has a good suppression effect on the ambient noise, which is why it is more suitable for noisy occasions.
In terms of parameters, condenser mics are obviously much better than dynamic mics. It has the characteristics of high sensitivity, wide frequency response (20Hz～20kHz), fast instantaneous response, and high sound reproduction, and can handle high boosts calmly. The sound of condenser microphones is clear and beautiful. Professional singers usually choose condenser microphones, which can show their natural and beautiful voice. Therefore, condenser microphones are widely used in professional vocal singing, studio recording, film and television recording, musical instrument pickup and other occasions. Therefore, the condenser microphone can be said to be the best choice for recording.
Professional recording quality wins evaluation of condenser microphones
Condenser microphone for recording in the studio
However, condenser microphones are also not perfect. Because of their high sensitivity, it is easy to collect noise from the surrounding environment. Therefore, condenser microphones are usually not used in high-noise environments such as large-scale outdoor performances and film and television. Not only is there a lot of noise, it may also cause damage to the microphone. At this time, the dynamic microphone comes in handy.
Subsection: Dynamic microphones and condenser microphones may not be good or bad, but they have different uses. In noisy environments and when there is no high requirement for sound quality, dynamic microphones are the first choice. In professional recording, or where high-quality and clear sound quality is required, condenser microphones are your first choice.
4 The focus is on how to choose the wheat that suits you?
Having said that, some people may ask: "With so many microphones on the market, how do I choose one that suits me?" I also want to talk to you about this issue. When choosing a microphone, it’s not just that you choose the expensive one. That will only waste your money, and you may not be able to get satisfactory sound quality. What you need is a microphone that best matches your voice.
Professional recording quality wins evaluation of condenser microphones
Choose a microphone that matches your voice
You know, everyone's voice is unique, and each voice has its own sonic characteristics. From the high range to the low range, from smooth to rough, the difference in these waveforms distinguishes one's voice from others. Similarly, each microphone has its own frequency response characteristics. Only when its frequency response characteristics match your voice, is it the most suitable microphone for you.
It looks amazing, but there is nothing profound in it. For example, if you have a high voice like "Little Shenyanger", then the condenser microphone may not be suitable for you (because too high sensitivity will bring more harsh tooth sounds). What you need is a dynamic microphone that can cut high frequencies and has a darker and warmer tone.
On the contrary, if your voice is deep and deep, the dynamic microphone is obviously not suitable. What you need is a condenser microphone that can improve high-frequency brightness and detail performance, so that this type of microphone can better match your voice. Therefore, choosing the right microphone can complement your voice and make your singing more beautiful.
Written at the end:
After understanding the difference between dynamic microphones and condenser microphones, I believe it will be helpful for you to choose a microphone in the future, so that you can find the vocal microphone that suits your voice more quickly. Don't underestimate this process. It can make you more confident in your own voice when you are singing or recording, and you will be praised by more people. Therefore, don't blindly pursue expensive, the best match your own voice.